CC9.3B c. Analyze, evaluate, and apply the strategies used before, during, and after speaking, writing, and other forms of representing including:
- consider prompt or find a topic and activate prior knowledge (e.g., consider the key components of communication including purpose, role, audience, format, and topic; consider timelines and deadlines)
- consider purpose and audience (e.g., consider if the communication is to entertain, explain, surprise, persuade, describe, or narrate; consider how to engage intended audience and what response is wanted from them)
- consider and generate specific ideas and information that might be included (e.g., consider and value own observations, experiences, ideas, and opinions as sources for ideas; use free writing, clustering, or another selecting activity to explore and find a focus)
- consider and choose/adapt a possible form (e.g., consider the frame or form that could be used to best present ideas and that would be appropriate to audience and purpose)
- collect and focus ideas and information (e.g., consider how much is already known about the subject, what additional information is available, and where it may be found)
- plan and organize ideas for drafting (mapping and authoring) (e.g., state focus for communication in sentence and then map or outline a plan that might develop that focus)
- consider qualities of effective communication and the language to use (e.g., consider what to emphasize in the communication and what tone or voice could be used).
- create draft(s) and experiment with possible product(s) (e.g., develop a first draft that introduces the topic and gives the focus statement, covers each part of the topic, uses details explaining the topic, and ends in a way that gives the viewer, listener, reader a final thought; shape and reshape draft with audience and purpose in mind)
- confer with others (e.g., articulate hopes for composition and solicit feedback and suggestions from peers and others)
- use language and its conventions to construct message (e.g., use the right level of language for purpose and audience)
- reflect, clarify, self-monitor, self-correct, and use a variety of "fix-up" strategies (e.g., check for active, forward-moving sentences; cut, clarify, and condense)
- acknowledge sources (e.g., acknowledge and cite sources accurately)
- experiment with communication features and techniques (e.g., try creating in a different style for a different audience).
- revise for content and meaning (adding, deleting, substituting, and rethinking) (e.g., cut information that does not support focus; add information if additional points need to be made; refine so ideas are interesting, colourful, and understood)
- revise for organization (e.g., consider what parts are working together well; review method of development; consider if the opening and closing are appropriate; consider if a written composition reads smoothly and clearly)
- revise for sentence structure and flow (e.g., test and revise sentences for variety, verb choice, and length)
- revise for word choice, spelling, and usage (e.g., consider clarity and quality of words)
- proofread for mechanics and appearance (e.g., check for spelling, usage, and mechanics)
- confer with peers, teacher, or others (e.g., provide meaningful feedback based on specific observations; keep comments positive and constructive)
- polish, practise, and decide how work will be shared and published (e.g., review purpose and consider if the communication succeeds)
- share final product, reflect, consider feedback, and celebrate learning (e.g., prepare a portfolio; submit a manuscript).