Recently in Research Articles & Links Category

Tar Sands and James Cameron

Syncrude Canada will not develop Saskatchewan oil sands at this time

Tue, Apr 13, 2010 09:07 PM CST
 

Syncrude Canada has no interest in developing Saskatchewan's oil sands, at least not yet.

On Tuesday, the C.E.O. of Canadian Oil Sands, Marcel Coutu, was in Regina on a public relations mission explaining the company's side of the environmental debate about oil sands developments.

Right now, Alberta's oil sands are being developed and at this stage there are no plans to tap into Saskatchewan's deposits

From:  www.mysask.com

Articles - March 29th

Nuclear isn't necessary - The notion that we need nuclear power to address climate change does not reflect the realities of the marketplace or rapid new developments in energy technology.

Oil Sands in Saskatchewan

Saskatchewan's Oil Sands - They are coming...

Jan 28th Articles

A few more articles

Another OilSands Article

Articles related to recent claims about climate change

Bush administration accused of doctoring scientists' reports on climate change


Climate scientist at centre of leaked email row dismisses conspiracy claims - listen to the interview as well


Climate chief: nations must ignore 'climate saboteurs'


UN climate panel to do its own 'ClimateGate' probe


"The emails do nothing to undermine the very strong scientific consensus ... that tells us the Earth is warming, that warming is largely a result of human activity," said Jane Lubchenco, head of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

She said the emails don't address data from her agency or the U.S. space agency NASA, which both keep independent climate records that show dramatic global warming.


Scientific Journal ->  Nature: Climatologists under pressure

Scientific Journal -> Nature: Battle lines drawn over e-mail leak

More Articles

Tar Sands Articles

Aug 30th Articles

EXCELLENT RESOURCE - G8 Science Academies Joint Statement on Climate Change

Summer Articles

June 4 Article - Hydrogen Fuel Cells are the Future - Car Makers

Automakers still have faith hydrogen fuel-cell cars


A General Motors Chevrolet Equinox fuel cell-electric SUV is shown during a dedication ceremony of California's first hydrogen refueling station in Los Angeles on Thursday, June 26, 2008. (AP / Damian Dovarganes)

A General Motors Chevrolet Equinox fuel cell-electric SUV is shown during a dedication ceremony of California's first hydrogen refueling station in Los Angeles on Thursday, June 26, 2008. (AP / Damian Dovarganes)


Updated Thu. Jun. 4 2009 5:34 PM ET

The Canadian Press

VANCOUVER -- The shine went off hydrogen fuel-cell cars well before the auto industry drove off a cliff last year, but that doesn't mean carmakers have abandoned the zero-emission technology.

In the 1990s, proponents predicted consumers could be driving fuel-cell vehicles as early as next year.

But they underestimated the obstacles in the way of producing a reliable, affordable car with the kind of range and drivability motorists now take for granted.

The U.S. government, facing a trillion-dollar deficit and a costly bailout of ailing domestic automakers, has slashed research funding for automotive fuel cells in favour of alternatives such as battery-electric and biofuel-powered vehicles.

Canadian fuel-cell pioneer Ballard Power Systems Ltd., of Burnaby, B.C., has virtually given up on the automotive side, focusing instead on more prosaic applications such as industrial forklifts and stationary backup power generators.

But the major automakers, including one-time Ballard partners Daimler-Benz and Ford, as well as embattled General Motors, are still sure hydrogen fuel cells represent the best long-term answer for reducing carbon dioxide emissions.

Fuel cells combine hydrogen and air to produce electricity by running them through a chemical catalyst. The only byproducts are heat and water.

Auto industry experts at this week's international conference on fuel cells in Vancouver said even if carbon-based sources such as natural gas or biomass are used to produce the hydrogen, fuel cells are more energy efficient and produce far less CO2 than hybrids or plug-in, battery-powered vehicles.

But for now, fuel-cell vehicles represent part of a multi-faceted solution to reduce greenhouse gases and conserve petroleum resources, they said.

Battery-electric vehicles seem the best choice now for short-distance city use, with plug-in hybrids that use small on-board engines to recharge their batteries better suited to longer distances.

Conventional gasoline- and diesel-powered trucks will continue to be the mainstay in the commercial sector for some time.

Down the road, though, they agreed hybrids should provide the range, power and all-weather durability to replace conventional cars.

The generally accepted goal is to produce a vehicle that can go 500 kilometres without refuelling while surviving northern winters and desert summers.

Automakers are closing in on those goals.

Honda's latest fuel-cell car, the FCX Clarity, has a range of 390 kilometres and can start in temperatures ranging from -30 C to 95 C, Ryan Harty, a Canadian-born engineer with American Honda's fuel-cell research centre in Torrance, Calif., said in an interview.

Automakers have largely settled on 2015 as a target date to get mass-produced fuel-cell cars into dealer showrooms.

Development lately has gone on largely out of the public spotlight as the focus shifted to hybrids and plug-in cars such as the Chevrolet Volt.

The first ungainly prototypes had fuel-cell stacks, which produce the electricity, and drive systems so bulky there was room for little more than the driver.

Development has shrunk the components so they can be packaged in a compact car or mid-sized SUV. The Clarity's fuel-cell is roughly the size of a desk-top computer and sits in the car's centre console between the driver and passenger.

A dozen fuel-cell cars, including the Chevrolet Equinox, the Clarity and Mercedes-Benz's A-Class F-CELL, drove into Vancouver on Wednesday after a 2,700-kilometre trip up the West Coast from San Diego, Calif.

Consumer-ready Clarities are being leased to motorists in California for three years to test their real-world durability. The lessees are a mix of average consumers and celebrities such as actress Jamie Lee Curtis.

"We wanted to make sure people were paying attention," said Steve Ellis, American Honda's manager of fuel-cell marketing.

The cars are being leased through dealerships so they would get an idea of what it takes to sell and service fuel-cell vehicles, he added.

In all, there are about 300 fuel-cell vehicles from different makers in the hands of California drivers, including a version of GM's Equinox crossover SUV. GM is also promising to bring eight to Canada for use at the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver.

These are not test mules, says Lawrence Burns, GM's vice-president of research and planning.

"These vehicles are real," he says.

Andreas Truckenbroadt, chief executive of the Vancouver-based Automotive Fuel Cell Partnership, said cost reduction remains the biggest challenge for commercializing fuel cell vehicles. The goal is to make them comparable to current engine technology.

"We still have a way to go but we know how to get there," he said.

He supports the idea of co-operating to develop some components the customers don't see, such as hydrogen compressors, valves and humidifiers, that don't effect performance or driving characteristics.

"We're fierce competitors but we should not be worrying about brand specifications," said Truckenbroadt, who comes from Daimler-Benz.

Burns agrees there's room for collaboration among automakers and suppliers.

"It's silly to put our capital and our engineering dollars into those parts if they're not going to be the basis for winning the race," he says.


June 1 Article - Sustainable Housing in Saskatoon

See the article - The New Green City

Bruce Power's Plan

Here are some links.  Note that one of their documents talks about a hydrogen energy hub!

Bruce Power's Plane - Saskatchewan 2020

Bruce Power's Nuclear Feasibility Study

Bruce Power's Document - Saskatchewan and the Hydrogen Age;
Nuclear Energy Can Drive the Transition

May 26th Articles

May 25th Articles

May 19th Articles

May 18th Articles

May 13th Article

May 12 Articles

Here are a few articles on the topic of energy from the June 2009 edition of Discover Magazine.  You can see the original in the library.

The Big Heat.PDF

Sunshine Bottle.PDF

May 11 Article - Carbon Taxes

Fighting climate change with carbon taxes needs more support...

Canadians barely support carbon tax, poll finds

More Hydrogen Biased Resources - not just for Mark ;)

www.smellingland.com

The "Related Links" on the bottom right have some excellent articles.

The scientific thought on nature from Nikola Tesla

I thought this quote was interesting - the thoughts of a major scientist from 90 years ago.

"The progressive development of man is vitally dependent on invention.  It's ultimate purpose is the complete mastery of mind over the material world; the harnessing of the forces of nature to human needs."

Nikola Tesla - 1919

Nuclear for all the wrong reasons...

Here is an article about nuclear energy.  I don't know if I would say it is for a very good cause.

Russia to build floating Arctic nuclear stations


April 22nd Article on Wind Power

Though this was interesting:
 

Reports of wind farm health problems growing

Clean Coal Commercials - PRO and CON

Here are a few PRO and CON Clean Coal (Carbon Capture and Sequestration) commercials that were shown by our guest speaker from the City of Saskatoon

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pKC5YV2yrFk
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J1A146sANdg
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W-_U1Z0vezw
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PdHuB7Ovl2o

More info for your essay - these are some REALLY good sources

George Monbiot - Heat: How to stop the planet burning

Frontline: Heat

Excellent film on energy - great material for your essay.

Frontline: Heat

March 6th Articles

March 1st Articles

Feb 22nd Articles

Vancouver poised to lead world in fuel cell technology


74 miners killed, 114 injured in China coal mine blast (About 3,200 people have died in coal mine accidents last year in the country).


Feb 18th Articles

Feb 7 2009 Articles

Dec 20 - Obama appoints more science advisors

John Holdren, appointed by US president Obama, is a leader on climate change and believes nuclear power has a role in solving climate change.

Here is the appointment article (and a more detailed one, and yet another)
Here is an article on his work life

Here is an audio clip where he discusses nuclear power's role in solving climate change.

Dec 18th Articles - Batteries and cosmic rays

December 12th Articles

This professor (Mark Jacobson - Atmosphere/Energy Program, Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Stanford University) says we need electricity and hydrogen just like Scott does.  He likes wind and solar harvesting technologies but is concerned about carbon sequestration, ethanol and nuclear technologies.  His path would be wind (solar) -> wind turbine (solar farm) -> electricity or hydrogen as a currency -> service technologies -> services.  He feels we do not need nuclear and that there is enough wind and solar.  Here is a LOT of information about his analysis.

Jacobson, M. Z., Review of solutions to global warming, air pollution, and energy security (published online version) (pdf)

News summary of article (link)

Video summary of article (link)

October 1, 2008 presentation slides (pdf)

October 10, 2008 Briefing to Senator Jeff Bingaman, Chairman Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee (pdf)

The world's only wind map based on data alone at the height of modern turbines

http://www.stanford.edu/group/efmh/winds/global_winds.html

Any other information you have heard about the amount of wind available worldwide over land is not based on real numbers but based on guesses only. The quantity from data is about 72 TW (delivered) in locations over land where the wind speed > 6.9 m/s (about 13% of the world land) (compared with a world power demand of 12-15 TW (which would decrease significantly if we converted to electricity for everything).

Here are a few of his responses to my questions:

___________________________________________________________________________

Kevin,

    Hydrogen is clean (if it is produced from clean energy), but moving an HFCV 1 km requires almost three times more clean energy than does moving a BEV one km (please see the spreadsheet in the Supplementary Information of the article from either of the two sites below

http://www.stanford.edu/group/efmh/jacobson/revsolglobwarmairpol.htm
http://www.rsc.org/Publishing/Journals/EE/article.asp?doi=b809990c

(e.g., a plug-to-wheel efficiency of a BEV is 75-86% whereas an electrolyzer-to-wheel efficiency (of a HFCV (accounting for electrolyzer efficiency~74%, compressor efficiency ~90%, fuel cell efficiencies ~46-50%, and about 3% leakage) is around 30% (these compare with an internal combustion engine tank to wheel efficiency on average in the US of 17%. Thus, BEVs are by far the most efficient of all energy conversion technologies for vehicles. However, H2 is a great storage medium for intermittent energy.

    In the US, most cooling is already from electric air conditioning, so that is addressed in the paper since the results apply to the electricity sector. Also, about 40% of heating is through electrical resistance heating or heat pumps. Most of the rest is from natural gas heating, as is most water heating (although a good portion is electrical water heating). The next step would be to convert home heating and water heating to electricity powered by renewables. We have preliminary calculated that this  would increase electricity requirements by on the order of 40-50%. Thus, we would have taken care of nearly all sources of CO2 in the US (vehicles, electric power, home heating/cooling, water heating/cooling), except for some industrial processes that require high temperatures, and ships/airplanes. These could be addressed last.



Hi

A few questions about your paper from a high school teacher dabbling in energy.  I (well, my grade 11 class and I) have been reading a book entitled Smelling Land:  The hydrogen solution to climate catastrophe.  In it, the author (David Sanborn Scott - www.smellingland.com) argues for a shift to a hydrogen/electric age. He argues that hydrogen will be necessary to replace fossils.  As well, he argues that there is simply not enough wind or solar to replace all fossil sources and that we will need a combination of nuclear, solar, wind, etc to really solve the issue of carbon dioxide output.  He, like you, is against carbon sequestration and ethanol but is pro-nuclear.  He also feels that fuel cell vehicles are a superior technology to battery vehicles (I agree with your statement that a HFCV/BEV hybrid may be the solution).

I like your article and it appears to address generating enough energy/exergy for transportation alone but I don't see where it addresses total energy/exergy requirements including heating, cooling and other electrical needs.  Am I missing something here? How will we rid ourselves of the other technologies that produce this energy and also carbon dioxide?

Also, would you not think that we would be better to generate hydrogen from wind so we can do a bit of storage to compensate from the burstiness of this harvesting technology?  That is, rather than an electrical grid, we could have a hydrogen grid (pipelines, etc)?

It would be more efficient to generate the electricity from wind, then transmit it to a filling station and produce the H2 on site in an electrolyzer. This avoids pipelines, which are more expensive than transmission lines, and reduces leakage potential.


Furthermore, do your calculations for nuclear factor in the fact that at some point, the operation and mining itself could be accomplished by hydrogen fuel cell machinery rather than fossil fuel service technologies?  Admittedly this would be a ways away however it would reduce the CO2 per unit energy that you calculated to almost zero would it not?

This would be very inefficient and also not necessary. There is no need for nuclear since either wind or solar, alone can power the entire world many times over.

Sincerely,

Mark Jacobson




Thanks for your time
Kevin Riffel
Teacher
Bishop James Mahoney High School
Saskatoon, SK
Canada


-- 
Mark Z. Jacobson
Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Professor, by Courtesy, of Energy Resources Engineering
Director, Atmosphere/Energy Program
Stanford University                Phone:    650-723-6836
Yang & Yamazaki Environment & Energy Bldg.    Fax:    650-725-9720
473 Via Ortega, Room 397            Email:    jacobson@stanford.edu
Stanford, CA 94305-4020     http://www.stanford.edu/group/efmh/jacobson/


_________________________________________________________________

Kevin,


Thanks for the response Mark.  First, I am not arguing against your plan or analysis, I am just trying to determine if it will be enough and if we can avoid using nuclear which some (like Scott) say we cannot.

Where does that 40-50% increase come from?  Renewables?  If so, which ones?


This is the increase in electric power generation from replacing natural gas for home/commercial heating and hot water with electric power (electric resistance heaters or heat pumps and electric hot water heaters) (where the electricity comes from any renewable electric power source)


I have students debating this as well so they are quite keen on your responses.
I agree that BEV efficiency is high but the range limitations are a concern (I have heard of battery swapping to increase range but that seems problematic).  Clearly BEV would be awesome in my small city! HFCV efficiency is lower but we get a lot of freedom (long range vehicles).

The Tesla range is now 242 miles. Electric vehicles have the advantage in that they can be charged at home or work, thus no more trips to the gas station. Their only disadvantage is for single-shot trips > 200+ miles. This is a small percent of trips for most people. Thus, an hybrid BEV-HFCV might come in handy for this case (or battery swapping).


One question I have about your analysis is that you deal with industrial processes, ships, trains??? and airplanes last.  What portion of the US CO2 production is due to this???  I would think it would be a HUGE amount.

Aircraft are ~3% of carbon worldwide. Ships are on the same order.

I would definitetly try to use hydrogen fuel cells for the ships and planes (or hybrid electricity-hydrogen fuel cells).


 My concern is that without addressing this we are ignoring a large amount of carbon dioxide.  Also, the CO2 released by an airplane has a high residence time due to its altitude.


CO2 has such a long lifetime in the atmosphere (35-50 year e-folding lifetime), that it doesn't matter where it is emitted so much. However, soot from aircraft is a bigger issue with regard to altitude of emissions.

I really don't see a solution to the plane/ship/long distance private vehicle solution without hydrogen.  Based on this, I am unsure where we get the extra hydrogen from to power the planes and trains and the extra energy to power the industrial processes. Nuclear?  Solar?  other?


There is enough wind or solar, independently, to provide all the world's power for everything (including if we used hydrogen), many times over. Again, there is no need for nuclear. Given that it takes 10-19 years for a new nuclear plant to come online, it is also an opportunity cost loss since we will be emitting coal and gas while we wait.

Mark


Thanks for the links to your data.  My students will find it to be very thorough and overwhelming!  Something they need to see for sure.

I really think we also need hydrogen from renewables in order to do some load balancing but from what you are saying that load balancing could be accomplished with an intelligent network of sorts.

Thanks again
Kevin

__________________________________________________________________

Kevin,

    We published the world's only wind map based on data alone at the height of modern turbines

http://www.stanford.edu/group/efmh/winds/global_winds.html

so any other information you have heard about the amount of wind available worldwide over land is not based on real numbers but based on guesses only. The quantify from data is about 72 TW (delivered) in locations over land where the wind speed > 6.9 m/s (about 13% of the world land) (compared with a world power demand of 12-15 TW (which would decrease significantly if we converted to electricity for everything).

Please see Slide 24 of the "presentation slides" located at

http://www.stanford.edu/group/efmh/jacobson/revsolglobwarmairpol.htm

to see the area required for solar to power the entire U.S. vehicle fleet on batteries. It is very small, particularly compared with E85 from corn or cellulose. It is larger than the 3 km2 wind land footprint to do the same thing but smaller than the spacing area for wind. It is only twice the area required for nuclear power plants to do the same thing (Figure 6 of http://www.rsc.org/Publishing/Journals/EE/article.asp?doi=b809990c

since nuclear needs a buffer zone and requires land for mining, storage of waste, and its own facilities (discused in text).

    You are welcome to post the information I have provided.

Mark


Thanks Mark.  I understood where the 40-50% was calculated from, just asking where we would get the extra electricity for replacement from.

I have heard people argue both ways on this one (There is enough wind or solar, independently, to provide all the world's power for everything (including if we used hydrogen), many times over. Again, there is no need for nuclear. Given that it takes 10-19 years for a new nuclear plant to come online, it is also an opportunity cost loss since we will be emitting coal and gas while we wait.)

I have never seen a complete analysis explaining either side of supporters or deniers of this statement.  That is, there are people arguing that there isn't enough wind to power everything and that we would have to cover far too much land to use solar.  Could you point me to further evidence supporting your view that there is enough power for ALL of this without nuclear or fossils?

Thanks again for your time.
Kevin

_______________________________________________________________

Section 10 of the paper discusses intermittency and how to deal with it. Storage would be one of the last things to do if it is needed. One can still store hydrogen at filling stations, so it does not matter so much whether the hydrogen is produced at a centralized plant and piped or produced at multiple filling stations and stored there. I suppose transmission lines may fail more than pipelines, but I am not so sure that makes up for the greater infrastructure changes required to add pipelines and trucks  rather than use transmission lines, which are predominantly in place (but may need beefing up).

Mark


Alright.  But I am still unsure how you would plan to address the burstiness of the wind/sun harvesting technologies.  That is, would you not have to store the electricity somehow or essentially lose it hence leading to losses anyway?  I was thinking that 'extra' electricity (that above current demand) would go to generating hydrogen to be piped.  I suppose that hydrogen generation could be done at ANY point in the system of electrical transmission.  The concept of generating and piping hydrogen would allow for greater load balancing as well as potentially reducing the risk of natural and man made disasters that transmission lines have.  It would provide a doubly redundant system albeit with one of them being less efficient than the other.



Dec 6th Articles - Electric Cars???

Maybe we are not moving to hydrogen...

This quote is from the WWF report entitled:  Plugged In: The End of the Oil Age.

The final word on hydrogen goes to Dr. Ulf Bossel of the European Fuel Cell Forum:

Without the slightest doubt, the technology for a hydrogen economy exists or can be developed in reasonable time. Also, hydrogen is an appropriate energy carrier for particular niche applications, or it may become an important medium for electricity storage with reversible fuel cells. But hydrogen can never establish itself as a dominant energy carrier. It has to be fabricated from high grade energy and it has to compete with high grade energy in the market place.  Hydrogen cannot win this fight against its own energy source. Physics is eternal and cannot be changed by man. Therefore, a "Hydrogen Economy" has no past, no present and no future. The road to sustainability leads to an "Electron Economy".

Here are several articles related to electric cars...

Hawaii Says Aloha to an Electric Car Network
Electric Car Dreams Have Limits
Mini-E Electric Car
Task Force Sees Electric Vehicle Revolution in the Next Decade
Is The Volt GM's Savior
Long Range Electric Car is the Future
Chrysler's Electric Surprise

Another Oil Entry

Video Sources for you Essay

A new article thanks to Michal

Vatican opinion on Nuclear Power

Here is a fairly recent article on nuclear power and the Vatican

A great little video about climate change (Global Warming)

The Denial Machine - Watch it again here:  http://www.cbc.ca/fifth/denialmachine/video.html

The message:  Conservatives and Liberals should have made a better effort.

Frank Luntz - "If you really care about global warming...take it out of the political sphere...be honest and focus on solutions that will actually make a difference."

An interesting SOURCE for our new CURRENCY

Hydrogen Fuel Cells & Climate Change

Here are a few links to some fuel cell stories:

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/7655831.stm
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/7507795.stm
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/england/7353527.stm
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/england/7497992.stm

A story about politics and climate change:

http://www.ctv.ca/servlet/ArticleNews/story/CTVNews/20081006/election2008_environment_081007/20081007?s_name=election2008&no_ads=

September 9th Articles - Nuclear Reactors and Childhood Cancer

September 1st Articles

A few articles related to climate change and Smelling Land!  Use them for your essay by filling in the research organization sheet (found here).

Reducing Urban Sprawl To Reduce GHG Emissions

Financial Risks Due To Global Warming From Coal Plants

Wind Power Overflows Transmission Lines - Forced To Shut Down (We Need a New Infrastructure - Hydrogen!)


Are we PAST the tipping point? Articles for August 30th.

Just one article today.  Smelling Land and Can We Save Planet Earth both talk about tipping points.  Are we past the tipping point?  Here is an article for you.

Mr. Riffel

Websites and Articles - August 25th

June 14th Article

An article related to cleaning up nuclear waste

Wind Power and Hydrogen Generation

More Nuclear Articles - May 18th

May 8th Articles - Keep Reading!

May 8th Articles

May 5th Articles

May 4th Articles

April 29th Articles

April 27th Articles

Does Burning Ethanol Produce Carbon Dioxide - a Greenhouse Gas

Chemistry - from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethanol_fuel

During ethanol fermentation, glucose is decomposed into ethanol and carbon dioxide.

C6H12O6 → 2C2H6O + 2CO2

During combustion ethanol reacts with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide, water, and heat: (other air pollutants are also produced when ethanol is burned in the atmosphere rather than in pure oxygen)

C2H6O + 3O2 → 2CO2 + 3H2O

April 23 Articles

April 20th Articles

The Hydrogen Solution Part 1 - Student Generated Answers and Comments

Feel free to post answers if you choose to this entry of the blog.  Please be respectful and specific.  Include the question number as well.  Note that this is Part 1.  You can enter a comment by clicking on the title link and then filling out the comment form at the bottom.

Start discussing this with your peers here.

Mr. Riffel

The Hydrogen Solution Part 2 - Student Generated Answers and Comments

Feel free to post answers if you choose to this entry of the blog.  Please be respectful and specific.  Include the question number as well.  Note that this is Part 2.  You can enter a comment by clicking on the title link and then filling out the comment form at the bottom.

Start discussing this with your peers here.

Mr. Riffel

The Hydrogen Solution Part 2 Questions

Here are the questions to part 2 of the interview with Scott.  Part 2 goes more into detail about why he feels that nuclear and hydrogen are the solution to our energy needs.

Questions

April 5th Article

April 2nd Articles

March 25 Articles

The Hydrogen Solution Part 1 Questions and Information

Here are the questions and information to guide you through part one.

The Hydrogen Solution Part Two

01 The Hydrogen Solution - Part Two.mp3

Right click and save it to your computer and then play it or transfer it to an mp3 player or Ipod.

March 13th Articles

The Hydrogen Solution MP3 - Part 1

01 The Hydrogen Solution - Part One.mp3

Right click and save it to your computer and then play it or transfer it to an mp3 player or Ipod.

March 12 Articles

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